Compendium 2017-02-08T13:38:33+00:00

Compendium

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A

Added value
The value added to a product through a physical process (e.g. production, packaging, storage, transportation).

Air permeability
Property of paper products; air volume permeating the paper surface. The air permeability is a key characteristic for the running properties of packaging material in packaging machines that use vacuum processes.

Anilox roller
Roller equipped with screen dots for the transfer of the ink. In the flexo print process, the ink is transferred by the anilox roller onto the printing plate. The properties of the anilox roller are of crucial importance for the application of the correct amount of printing ink.

Anti-skid treatment
Special coating of paper/corrugated cardboard, improving the anti-skid properties of the packaging.

AUTO ID
AUTO-ID stands for automatic identification and covers all methods used for the automatic collection and processing of data. AUTO ID technologies include for example voice recognition, magnetic cards, bar codes and RFID.

B

Bar code
See EAN code.

BCT
Box Compression Test (compression testing method of cardboard boxes) [kN]. The BCT value describes the static load-bearing capacity of a packaging unit. The test is carried out on a box compression tester.

Blanc
Die-cut box that is supplied as a flat (i.e. unfolded and not glued).

Board
Flat product consisting mainly of vegetable fibres, produced from a fibre pulp. The pulp is transferred onto screens and the water is removed, so that the fibres form a continuous web. By definition, board has a grammage of >220 g/sqm.

Bottom flap
Element(s) of a cardboard box forming its bottom.

Bursting pressure
The bursting strength in [kPa] (DIN 53141) corresponds to the point at which a sample held by a circular clamp bursts under pressure that is continuously increased.

C

Cardboard
Flat product consisting mainly of vegetable fibres, produced from a fibre pulp. The pulp is transferred onto screens and the water is removed, so that the fibres form a continuous web. This material is also known as solid fibreboard, and weighs between 150 and 600 g per sqm.

Cargo optimisation
Method for the optimisation of the cargo and use of vehicles in the transportation of goods, i.e. by means of adjustments to the cargo room or the packaging.

Category
A category is a clearly distinguished, separately controllable group of products or services that are perceived by consumers as being related and/or interchangeable.

Central warehouse
Warehouse with a central function in the distribution system; used for example for the supply of other warehouses.

Coating
Surface finish applied in order to improve the processing properties of the material, to combine basic materials and to make better use of the specific advantages of materials and to eliminate any flaws. When a surface is coated, particles of the coating material are applied so that they form a continuous layer.

Continuous Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR)
Joint planning, forecasting and replenishing process of trading partners, whereby the requirements through the supply chain are determined by means of a standardised process, allowing for better coordination, reduced stock in warehouses and the elimination of shortages.

Co-packing
Provision of packaging services by an external service company (subcontractor). Packaging services can be purchases for all types of packaging tasks, e.g. placing goods in display units, repackaging articles or adding products to packed articles for promotional purposes.

Corrugated cardboard
Corrugated cardboard is defined in DIN 55468, part 1 as a packaging material consisting of one or two layers of corrugated paper glued between layers of other paper or cardboard layers.

Corrugator
Machine used for the production of corrugated cardboard from paper by means of reforming and joining.

Cromalin
Colour testing method (toner technique); cost-effective and reliable proof for rastered colour separations. Cromalin corresponds more or less to the European standard for offset printing.

Cross-Docking (CD)
Cross-docking is a distribution method where the goods supplied to the warehouse are not stored but immediately prepared for delivery to branch outlets. This requires detailed coordination of roll-ins and deliveries, and the partner must avail of a system that provides them with the necessary information. With pallet cross-docking, entire pallets are forwarded from the supplier to the delivery lorry without any additional handling or processing at the distribution centre.

D

Direct pallet exchange programme
Industrial practice for the efficient use of pallets: after pallet-loaded goods are unloaded, the recipient sends the same number of identical pallets back to the supplier, so that they can be used for other deliveries.

Direct print
Direct printing method for corrugated cardboard. In contrast to the pre-print method, the ink is applied directly to the outer liner of the corrugated product.

Direct delivery
Supply method whereby individual retail outlets are supplied directly by the wholesaler, bypassing regional distribution centres.

Distribution channel
Channel through which goods are transferred from the supplier to the end user. The channel is normally determined by the type of trading partners involved in the transaction (e.g. wholesaler, retailer).

Double-wall corrugated board
Board with two corrugated layers; these layers might be of the same or of different design. Examples: EB or BC corrugated board.

E

EAN
Machine-readable bar code symbol used with application identifier standards (EAN 13, EAN 128). Facilitates logistic processes and automation and improves security. The system is regulated by the European Article Numbering Association, which acts on a global scale, and the US Uniform Code Council. These bodies are in charge of the numbering and communication systems of EAN, UPC, EANCOM and UCS.

EAS
Electronic article surveillance

ECMA
European code (standard) for folding carton styles (published by European Carton Maker Association)

ECR (Efficient Consumer Response)
Joint initiative of suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers. The initiative’s goal is the continued improvement of logistics chains, offering European consumers optimum quality, service and product choice at a competitive price.

ECT Edge Crush Test [N/m] Test method for the determination of edgewise crush resistance of corrugated fibreboard (DIN EN ISO 3037)

EDI (Electronic Data Interchange )
EDI describes the transfer of structured data by means of defined electronic communication standards from one computer application to another. Efficient EDI requires only minimum manual interference in the data exchange. As there is no paper work and administrative costs generally associated with traceability are reduced, EDI helps save money and minimises errors and disruption in the data flow. The practical benefit for ECR is primarily based on the specifications of EANCOM messages.

Efficient replenishment (ER)
Joint initiative by manufacturers and vendors aimed at making the flow of goods from the manufacturer to the consumer more efficient. This means in particular that the right product must be available in the most efficient manner in the right quantity at the right time and the right location.

Single-face corrugated board
Corrugated cardboard with a single liner board so that the corrugated sheet is visible from one side.

EP (Efficient Promotion)
Joint initiative of manufacturers and traders aimed at improving promotional measures by matching them with real consumer needs and making them more cost-efficient.

EPC (Electronic Product Code)
The EPC has been developed by Auto-ID Center and is intended to replace bar codes in the future. With the EPC, it is possible to separately encode the manufacturer, the type of product and individual product properties. The EPC is supported by the United Code Council and EAN International.

ESA (Efficient Store Assortment)
Joint initiative of manufacturers and retailers for assortment planning, aimed at using retail floor space more efficiently in order to achieve higher profits.

F

FBM
Folding box gluing machine; machine in which the cut boxes are glued to form flat boxes (fold-out boxes, folded bottom boxes).

FCT
Flat Crush Test (DIN EN 23035); test method used to determine the flat crushing resistance [kPa] of single corrugated board.

FEFCO (Fédération Européenne des Fabricants de Carton Ondulé)
International code system for for transport packaging. The codes are devised by combining various elements and materials into complete units.

Flexo preprint
Pre-printing technique used to apply water-soluble colour inks onto reel-feed printing presses (central roller or base printing machine) with continuous printing patterns. The corrugated cardboard, paper bags, etc. are then transferred to the next production process.

Flexo print
Flexo printing is a direct letterpress technique. In the flexo printing process, flexible printing plates apply low-viscosity (aqueous) ink to the material.

G

Grammature
Weight per surface area [g/sqm]; unit used for the grading of paper, cardboard and carton.

H

Hazardous goods
Goods (materials, products) that pose a special risk to persons, animals and the environment. Packaging solutions for hazardous goods must be type-approved and are subject to special quality requirements.

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Inliner
Processing machines combining printing, punching and gluing in a single unit (inliner). Commonly used in the production of folding cartons.

Inner liner
Paper layer on the inside of corrugated cardboard.

Inside dimensions
Inside dimensions of a packaging box. The outside dimensions can be calculated by adding the material thicknesses to the inside dimensions.

ISO 3394 (surface measurement)
Dimensions of a rectangle delimited in a horizontal plane by four vertical surfaces that are at right angles to each other. The rectangle corresponds to the area required for the transport of a upright packaging unit (footprint).

ISO 3676 (module dimensions)
Reference dimensions used in connection with the dimensions of distribution system elements.

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JIT (Just-in-time)
Delivery of materials to a location at the time at which they are required there for processing or consumption. Just-in-time delivery requires good coordination of all associated processes.

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Kraftliner
Top liner made in softwood kraft pulp, with a recycled fibre content of max. 20 %; may consist of several layers; strongest corrugated cardboard product, resistant against moisture and most suitable for transport packaging.

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Laminating unit
Processing machine for the production of laminated products.

Laminating
Process in which a pre-produced flat article is laminated with a laminating agent or by means of thermoplastic processes, depending on the product properties. Objective: improvement of the processing properties of the material, combination of various basic materials, utilisation of the specific advantages of materials and compensation for their specific disadvantages.

Lead time
The period between the making of an order and the delivery of the goods. It is normally expressed in days and hours.

Logistics network
Distribution system including warehouses and transport routes, designed to steer the products to be supplied through the supply chain.

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MDC (Manufacturer Distribution Centre)
Central warehouse of the manufacturer to which the products are transferred after manufacture. The goods are stored there as separate or combined loads before they are moved on to the next station in the logistics chain.

Modular packaging
System for packaging sizes (according to ISO 3637) based on the modular dimension. This system is for example used for the ISO basic module (600 * 400 mm), which is derived from the size of the Euro pallet.

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Order limits
Minimum and maximum quantities for orders. These limits are based on economic parameters and must be agreed between the manufacturer and retailer. Normally, these limits are expressed in pallets, weight units or number of pieces.

Offset printer
Printing technician specialising in offset printing and prepress processes.

Offset print
Offset printing is an indirect printing technique where the printing and non-printing areas of the plate are at nearly the same level. The printing and non-printing sections of the plate are thereby distinguished by different physical properties. The inks used in offset printing are highly viscous, and are transferred by the plate cylinder and the rubber blanket cylinder onto the material to be printed.

P

Pallet
Carriers designed for the loading, stacking, sorting storing and handling of goods; also used as a cargo unit for the transportation of goods.

Penetration
The penetration force [J] (DIN 53142) is defined as the energy required to push a penetration body of a defined shape and size through the test specimen. The energy is absorbed in the perforation, tearing and bending of the specimen.

Perforation
Interrupted cut line, provided to facilitate folding or opening of boxes (tear-open perforation).

Pick-and-pack
Picking of goods at the warehouse and production of loads based on customer requirements. The load may consist of primary, secondary and tertiary packaging units (e.g. pallets).

Pick-by-store
Individual store deliveries are picked at the central warehouse of the manufacturer. Each order can thus be forwarded to the respective branch outlet with cross-docking, doing away with any handling of tertiary units at the wholesaler’s distribution centre.

POP (Point of Purchase)
Point at which the goods are purchased; new term for what is also known as POS (point of sale). POP shifts the focus to the consumer, i.e. the act of purchasing rather than the act of selling).

POS
Point of Sale; point at which a product is sold in a retail outlet

Primary packaging
First packaging in which a product is contained (e.g. bag, tube or cup).

Printing coat
Transparent coating applied through the printing press. The printing coat improves the surface properties such as abrasion resistance and gloss.

Printing plate
Printing plates used in flexo print process.

Printing unit
Assembly of a printing machine, applying the ink onto the board.

Proof
Test printout, representing the actual print result as closely as this is possible. The proof is used to compare printed matter.

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RDC (Retail Distribution Centre)
Central warehouse of the retailer forming part of the supply chain. The goods arrive from the manufacturer and the cargo is stored separately or reloaded for dispatch to the retail outlets.

Re-use
Reuse describes all activities in relation to the repeat use of packaging material, which has been specifically developed to withstand a defined number of re-use cycles including transportation. With re-use the packaging is used again for the same purpose by reloading or reapplication. When reaching the end of its re-use cycle, the packaging becomes packaging waste or a recyclable resource.

Replenishment system
System used to ensure proper supply to a customer by the desired method of delivery.

RFID
Radio Frequency Identification Technology used for the contact-free identification of objects. The relevant data is transferred by means of radio signals from a RFID transponder to a receiver where it is analysed. RFID technology provides a useful addition to the bar code, and should best be used along the entire supply chain.

RFID tag
See RFID transponder

RFID transponder
Radio transmitter receiving signals from a reader unit and returning them to the same unit. Transponder signals contain at least one unique product code, and additional information. Transponders are available in various formats, such as labels and plastic tags.

Roll-cage sequencing
Picking method used in warehouse. The goods in their tertiary packaging is taken from the shelves according to the branch layout.

Rotary die cutter
Processing machine for corrugated cardboard. The rotary cutting tool is clamped on a drum.

RRP (Retail Ready Packaging)
Packaging ready for presentation on retail shelves, meeting the principle requirements of the packaging-relevant added value chain from the wholesaler warehouse to the POS, and on to disposal or recycling. The abbreviations SRP stands for Shelf Ready Packaging and focuses exclusively on the requirements of a packaging unit for display at points of sale.

S

Safety stock
The stock which offsets the differences between forecast and actual consumption and delivery times of orders. In calculating the safety stock, factors such as service level, expected fluctuations of demand and lead time are taken into account.

Scoring
Scoring describes the process used to prepare the folding grooves of cardboard boxes. They provide clear folding lines and reduce the bending resistance of the material where appropriate. The tool used to produce scores is called a scorer.

Screen
A screen is a scanning pattern representing an image as an array of printing dots. The screen size is measured in dots per cm, e.g. 25, 48, etc.

Screening
Cheap single-layer recycled paper; as it contains no glue, it cannot withstand moisture. This raw material is used for the production of low-quality corrugated cardboard.

Secondary package
Secondary packages are boxes, etc. used to hold a given number of sales units. They are handed over together with the product to the end consumer, or used exclusively for display purposes at retail outlets. Secondary packaging can be removed from the product without altering its properties in any way (see European Directive 94/62/EU).

Semi-chemical pulp
Corrugated paper made from chemically recovered cellulose, with a recycled fibre content of 35%; provides improved moisture resistance and rigidity than waste-based fluting; more expensive than waste-base fluting.

Shelf replenishment
Placement of secondary and primary units in retail areas and transfer of such goods within a sales zone.

Silk screen print
Direct printing technique, using a stencil process in which an image or design is superimposed on a very fine metal or synthetic mesh screen.

SKU (stockkeeping unit)
1. In Europe, a SKU is a clearly identified product that is offered for sale at a specific point in time.
2. Unit of a product at a specific geographical location; a product that is for example stored in six different warehouses, constitutes six SKUs (US).

SLC
Small load carriers, available in various different designs and size.

Solid fibreboard
Flat product consisting mainly of vegetable fibres, produced from fibre pulp. The pulp is transferred onto screens and the water is removed, so that the fibres form a continuous web. By definition, solid fibreboard has a grammage of >220 g per sqm.

Splicer
Mechanical part of a corrugated cardboard production unit (paper reeling unit), splicing the end of one paper reel to that of the next one.

SRP (Shelf-ready packaging)
Retail packaging meeting the key requirements as regards POS, easy restocking of shelf, good product visibility, attractive presentation and other sales-promoting properties, easy unpacking of product, optimised shelf use and easy disposal of packaging.

Supply chain
All activities required to meet the demand for a product or service, from the sourcing of raw materials or data to the delivery of the finished product to the end consumer.

System (ISO 3676)
Unit consisting of interdependent components.

T

Technical drawing
Drawing (tool drawing) used to manufacture the punching tool and showing the printed design. Technical drawings are also included in the order documentation for quality assurance purposes.

Testliner
Liner made from 100 % recycled fibres of defined strength. Mostly applied in multiple layers, available as glued and unglued liner. In contrast to kraftliners, testliners are more sensitive to moisture and have a lower bursting threshold.

U

Unit loads (ISO 3676)
Loads consisting of units or packaging material that are bundled together with auxiliary equipment for the purpose of handling, transportation, stacking and storage. The term is also used to describe single large-scale loading equipment used for the same purposes.

V

Value chain analysis
Method for the identification and quantitative assessment of cost-saving potentials along the supply chain.

VCI Volatile Corrosion Inhibitor
Corrosion protection for exposed parts that might be damaged during storage or transporation if not protected. VCI protection is particularly important for products that are exposed to fluctuating climate factors.

VCI paper
Paper coated or impregnated with VCI (volatile corrosion inhibitor). The product is protected against corrosion by the active agent of the VCI solution, which is applied to the metal packaging parts.

VMI
Vendor managed inventory describes storage and distribution equipment that is managed by the customer.

W

Waste-based fluting
Raw material similar to screening, but of better quality; lightly glued on both sides; fluting of high grammature consists of two layers.

Wrap-around
Cut-to-size box, which is wrapped around the product to be packed in an automated packaging process.

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